Mark2906 asked, "If I need to add more assignments to a particular standard (say 11 tests instead of 7 or 8), how do I alter the formulae for calculating predicted scores?"
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The good news is that Excel will tag along for most of the adjustments you make to your spreadsheets. Need to copy, move, and paste some data? It will update the formulas automagically.
But that's not quite what Mark has asked us. In many K - 12 classrooms, you don't know exactly how many assignments/pieces of evidence you will be collecting for a particular standard or unit of study. So, here is the simplest way to address this.
Leave Room to Groove
There's no rule that all of the scores in your gradebook have to butt up against one another. When you create a new section for scores, just label more columns than you think you might need. For example:
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To determine the average for Jerry Colonna on the first standard, we can use the following formula: =SUM(C4:L4)/COUNT(C4:L4). We can then just copy the formula down for the other students. Excel will not treat the empty spaces as zeros. Should you need more columns, just insert them after the last assignment and the formula for the average will keep up with you.
If blank columns are occupying too much real estate, you can always hide them.
Other Ideas to Consider
There are such animals as Dynamic Named Ranges, which expand to fit the data supplied. You can read more about them here or see them in action here. Although they can be very handy, I think they're overkill for this particular problem.
I'm sure there are other solutions, including VBA options. Please share your additional ideas in the comments.